Dooyeweerd – Chapter 5

The unity of the Christian ground-motive has been threatened by dualistic ground-motives since its entrance into the late-Greek world until present day. The Greek form-matter ground-motive propagated the belief of divine design without divine creation, a schism in man involving a divine rational soul and a material body, a higher moral theory instead of salvation in Christ, and attempted to split creation and redemption. The Greek philosophic speculation of God was elevated above the faith of Christians in Christian Gnosticism. Defending Christianity from dualism ended up corrupting Christianity through scholasticism (or synthesis). Such people include: Augustine, who replaced Greek “philosophical theology” with Christian theology; Thomas Aquinas, who “divided the creation order into natural and supranatural realms”; William of Ockham, who separated the “natural life” from the “Christian life” of grace; Luther, who expressed the nature/grace motive as Law and Gospel; Karl Barth, who rejected every point of contact between the Christian faith and natural life in his dialectical theology; and Brunner, who “believed that the creation ordinances were valid as expressions of “common grace”.”

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